The first time graphene was artificially produced; scientists literally took a piece of graphite and dissected it layer by layer until only 1 single layer remained. This process is known as mechanical exfoliation. This resulting monolayer of graphite (known as graphene) is only 1 atom thick and is therefore the thinnest material possible to be created without becoming unstable when being open to the elements (temperature, air, etc.). Because graphene is only 1 atom thick, it is possible to create other materials by interjecting the graphene layers with other compounds (for example, one layer of graphene, one layer of another compound, followed by another layer of graphene, and so on), effectively using graphene as atomic scaffolding from which other materials are engineered. These newly created compounds could also be superlative materials, just like graphene, but with potentially even more applications.