When going to small dimensions, material properties change depending on the size and shape. Direct write lithography is a versatile technique for modifying and shaping materials at the nano- and microscale to study and control a wealth of physical properties.

Direct laser lithography can be used to create microscale patterns, structures and textures as well as contacts for electronic devices and measurements. Thermal lithography can do the same on the nanoscale and also directly generate various material modifications by local heating. Moreover, states of matter that are not accessible macroscopically can be reached thanks to ultra-fast heating or cooling, and high local pressure that can be applied with the nanoscale heated tip of the NanoFrazor.

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